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Tugas KBP chapter 2

chapter 2

Review Question
1. In what year was Plankalkul designed? In what year was that design published?

2. Mention an interesting feature of Zesu’s programs.
One of the most interesting features of Zuse’s programs was the inclusion
of mathematical expressions showing the current relationships between pro-gram variables

3.What does Plankalkul mean?
program calculus

5.What is the number of bits in a single word of the UNIVAC I’s memory?Who are the bits grouped?
72bits, grouped as 12 six-bit bytes

7.Who developed the Speedcoding system for the IBM 701?
John Backus

8.Who developed Short Code?Why is Short Code called automatic programming?
ohn Mauchly, because it clearly simplified the programming process, but at the expense of
execution time.

9.Under what environmentalconsideration was Fortran developed?Which is the first version of FOrtran?
IBM,Fortran 0

10.What was the most significant feature added to FOrtran I to get Fortran II?
fixed many of the bugs in the Fortran I compilation system and added some significant features to the language, the most important being the independent com-pilation of subroutines

13.Which version of Fortran was the first to have character string handling?
FOrtran IV

19. What was the goal for developing C?
to provide a language in which programs could be organized as they could be organized in SIMULA 67—that is, with classes and inheritance

57. What data type does Java support?

64. What is the primary platform on which C# is used?

65. What are the inputs to an XSLT processor?
an XML data docu-ment and an XSLT document

66. What is the output of an XSLT processor?
transform to another XML document,HTML, plain text

67. What element of the JSTL is related to a subprogram?
Servlet, JSP

68. To what is a JSP document converted by a JSP processor?

69. Where are .jsp files executed?
sevlet container


Problem Set
1.What features of Fortran IV do you thing would have had the greatest influence on JAVA if the Java designers had been familiar with Fortran?
string handling, logical loop control statements, and an Ifwith an optional Elseclause.

3.Write a short history of Fortran 0, Fortran I, Fortran II, Fortran III.
Fortran 0 =Even before the 704 system was announced in May 1954, plans were begun for
Fortran. By November 1954, John Backus and his group at IBM had produced
the report titled “The IBM Mathematical FORmula TRANslating System:
FORTRAN” (IBM, 1954). This document described the first version of For-tran, which we refer to as Fortran 0, prior to its implementation.

Fortran I=Fortran 0 was modified during the implementation period, which began in
January 1955 and continued until the release of the compiler in April 1957. The
implemented language, which we call Fortran I, is described in the first Fortran
Programmer’s Reference Manual,published in October 1956 (IBM, 1956).

Fortran II=The Fortran II compiler was distributed in the spring of 1958. It fixed many
of the bugs in the Fortran I compilation system and added some significant
features to the language, the most important being the independent com-pilation of subroutines. Without independent compilation, any change in a
program required that the entire program be recompiled.

Fortran IV=A Fortran III was developed, but it was never widely distributed. Fortran IV,
however, became one of the most widely used programming languages of its
time. It evolved over the period 1960 to 1962 and was standardized as For-tran 66 (ANSI, 1966), although that name was rarely used. Fortran IV was an
improvement over Fortran II in many ways.

6.Make an educated guess as to most common syntax error in C programs.
not included “;” , “{” , “}”

5.Which of the three original goals of the Fortran design committee, in your opinion, was most difficult to archieve at that time?
speed of the generated object code

8. Desccribe in detail the two most important reasons, in your opinion, why Speedcoding did not become a very widely used language.
Because of the features in speedcoding, matrix multiplication could be done in 12 Speedcoding instruc-tions and It claimed that problems that could take two weeks to program in machine code could be programmed in a few hours using Speedcoding

13. What is the primary reason why C became more widely used than Fortran?
It provide a language in which programs could be organized as they could be organized


Tugas KBP chapter 1

1. Why is it useful for a programmer to have some background in language

design, even though he or she may never actually design a programming


–              Increased capacity to express ideas

–              Improved background for choosing appropriate languages

–              Increased ability to learn new languages

–              Better understanding of the significance of implementation

–              Better use of languages that are already known

–              Overall advancement of computing

4. What programming language has dominated business application over the past 50 years?

–          COBOL

5. What programming language has dominated artificial intelligence over the past 50 years?

–          LISP

6. What language is most of UNIX written?


20. What is the name of the category of programming languages whose structure is dictated by the von Neumann computer architecture?

–          Imperative

21. What 2 programming language deficiencies were discovered as a result of the research in software development in the 1970s?

–          Top-down design

–          Stepwise refinement

22. What are the three fundamental features of an object-oriented programming language?

–              abstract data types

–              inheritance

–              dynamic binding

23. What language was the first to support the three fundamental features of OOP?

–          SIMULA 67

25. What are the 3 general methods of implementing a programming language?

–          Compilation

–          Pure Interpretation

–          Hybrid Implementation System

28. What is the utility of byte code?

–          Byte code provides portability to any machine that has a byte code interpreter and an associated run-time system.


1. I believe that solving a problem in a particular algorithmic step requires programming language skills, because when someone wants to make a particular algorithmic step, they have to make built-in functions to be put on each step. Thus, someone has to know about how to make and use the built-in functions properly, which is include in programming language skill.

2. The first programmer in human history is Lord Byron’s daughter, Augusta Ada Byron, the Countess of Lovelace. She wrote a computer program for Charles Babbage’s Analytical engine.

5. Artificial intelligence (AI) is a broad area of computer applications characterized by the use of symbolic rather than numeric computations. Symbolic computation means that symbols, consisting of names rather than numbers, are manipulated. Web software is supported by an eclectic collection of languages, ranging from markup languages, such as HTML, which is not a programming language, to general-purpose programming languages, such as Java. Because of the pervasive need for dynamic Web content, some computation capability is often included in the technology of content presentation.

6. According to my opinion, the most important characteristic of programming languages readability, because, when a program is readable, it can be written or modified as well, and I think if a program is readable, then it can cover almost all other characteristics.

7. The purpose of using a semicolon to mark the end of all statements in Java is to make the statements unambiguous. Almost all of programming language like C/C++ also use a semicolon to mark the end of all statements. With semicolon, the program will be more clear.



8. Many languages distinguish between uppercase and lowercase letters in user-defined names.

What are the pros and cons of this design decision?

-In favour is that it can give clarity and it expands the number of such names

(for any given length limit of such names). Against is that it is prone to error by users.


PTI homework chapter 7


Multiple Choice


Short Answer
1. – is a server connected to a network with the sole pur-pose of providing storage
– 6 tera byte

2. – thinner, longer cables; reduced interference; less expensive; support for many more connected devices at once; and faster speeds.
– optical disc drives, printers, scanners, digital cameras, and other devices.

3. – how many time that can be writen
– store photos

4. – Memory cards enable mobile users easily to transport digital photos, music, or files to and from mobile devices and computers or other devices.

– CompactFlash(CF) = Memory card capable of storing between 512 MB and 100 GB of data.
Secure Digital(SD) = Memory card capable of storing between 512 MB and 8 GB of data.
Secure Digital High Capacity(SDHC) = Memory card capable of storing between 4 and 32 GB
microSD = Memory card capable of storing between 1 and 2 GB of data.
micro SDHC = Memory card capa-ble of storing between 4 and 16 GB of data.

5. – Microfilm = 100- to 215-foot roll of film
Microfiche = small sheet of film, usually about 4 x 36 inches
– (1) Many companies allowing you to search through and view microfilm images online.
(2) Libraries use these media to store back issues of newspapers, magazines, and genealogy records.
(3) Some large organizations use microfilm and microfiche to archive inactive files.
(4) Some banks use them to store transactions and canceled checks.
(5) The U.S. Army uses them to store personnel records.

PTI homework chapter 6


Multiple coice


Short Answer
1. – The grafic of the images is diferent.
– the bigger size of LCD monitor, it needs more resolution that needed in the monitor or screen
2. – broadcast signals are digitized when they are sent via over-the-air (OTA) broadcasts from local television networks, satellite, or cable.
– Users plug one end of a cable in the game console and the other end in the video port on the television.
3. – bluetooth and infrared
– With Bluetooth = printing, a computer or other device transmits output to a printer via radio waves. The computer or other device and the printer do not have to bealigned with each other; rather, they need to be within an approx i mate 30-foot range.
With infrared =printing, a printer communicates with a computer or other device using infrared light waves. To print from a smart phone, for example, a user lines up the IrDA port on the smart phone with the IrDA port on the printer.

4. – Step 1 = A small resistor heats the ink,causing the ink to boil and form a vapor bubble
Step 2 = The vapor bubble forcesthe ink through thenozzle.
Step 3 = Ink drops onto the paper
Step 4 = As the vapor bubble collapses, fresh ink is drawn into the firing chamber.
– Professional applications requiring high image quality, such as photography studios, medical labs, and secu-rity identification systems, use dye-sublimation printers.
dye-sublimation printers for the home or small business user, by contrast, typically print images in only one or two sizes and are much slower than their professional counterparts
5. – speaker sys-tem contains two speakers and a subwoofer.
– Audio resolution is the number of bytes that represent sound in a given time
example 8-bit, 16-bit, or 24-bit

PTI homework chapter 5

1. T
2. T
3. F
4. T
5. T
6. F
7. F
8. F
9. F
10. T
11. T
12. T

Multiple Choice
1. C
2. A
3. B
4. C
5. D
6. C
7. C
8. C

1. B
2. G
3. D
4. J
5. E
6. A
7. H
8. F
9. I
10. J
Short Answer
1.-optical mouse = devices that emit and sense
light to detectthe mouseís movement
-laser mouse = place an optical mouse on nearly
all types of flat surfaces.
-air mouse = uses motion-sensing mouse that, in
addition to the typical buttons, allows you
to control objects, media players, and slide shows
by moving the mouse in predetermined directions

2.-Point = Move the mouse until the pointer on the
desktop is positioned on the item of choice.
Ex: Position the pointer on the screen.
-Right-click = Press and release the secondary mouse
button, which usually is the right mouse button
Ex: Display a shortcut menu.
-Triple-click = Quickly press and release the left
mouse button three times without moving the mouse.
Ex: Select a paragraph.
-Rotate wheel = Roll the wheel forward or backward.
Ex: Scroll vertically (up and down).
-Press wheel = Press the wheel button while moving
the mouse.
Ex: Scroll continuously.

3.-Optical character recognition (OCR) reads
characters from ordinary documents.
-Optical mark recognition (OMR) reads hand-drawn
marks such as small circles or rectangles.

4. A fingerprint reader = The reader can be
set up to perform different functions for different
fingers; for example, one finger starts
a program and another finger shuts down the

5. The ever-increasing presence of computers in
everyoneís lives has generated an awareness of the
need to address computing requirements for those
who have or may develop physical limitations.

For paralyzed or speech impaired individuals,
a doctor will implant a computerized device into
the brain. This device will contain a transmitter.
As the user thinks thoughts, the transmitter will
send signals to the computer.

PTI homework chapter 4


True/False Mark T for True and F for False.

_True              1. The system unit is a case that contains electronic components of the computer used to process data. (210)

_False_            2. The processor holds data waiting to be processed and instructions waiting to be executed. (213)

_True_            3. The speed of the system clock is just one factor that influences a computer’s performance. (216)

_True_            4. Replacing a motherboard is a fairly complicated process, whereas replacing a processor is much simpler. (218)

_False_            5. A byte is the smallest unit of data the computer can process. (221)

_True_            6. When the computer’s power is turned off, volatile memory loses its contents. (223)

_True_            7. Current processors include advanced transfer cache (ATC), a type of L2 cache built directly on the processor chip. (227)

_False_            8. Read-only memory refers to memory chips storing permanent data and instructions. (228)

_False_            9. Hi-Speed USB is a more advanced and faster USB, with speeds 100 times higher than that of its predecessor. (234)

_True_            10. USB 3.0 is more than 10 times faster than USB 2.0. (234)

_False_            11. Both USB 2.0 and USB 3.0 are backward compatible, which means they do not support older USB devices. (234)

_False_            12. SAS (serial-attached SCSI) is a newer type of SCSI that transmits more reliably, but at slower speeds, than parallel

SCSI. (235)


Multiple Choice Select the best answer.

1. The processor also is called the _____. (213)

a. motherboard

b. central processing unit (CPU)

c. adapter card

d. Chip


2. The _____ is the component of the processor that

directs and coordinates most of the operations in the

computer. (214)

a. control unit

b. arithmetic logic unit

c. register

d. machine cycle

3. A processor contains small, high-speed storage

locations, called _____, that temporarily hold data and

instructions. (216)

a. flash drives

b. registers

c. jacks

d. heat sinks

4. Supercomputers use _____ for applications such as

artificial intelligence and weather forecasting. (220)

a. system-on-a-chip technology

b. massively parallel processing


d. Accelerated Graphics Ports

5. ROM chips, called _____, contain permanently written

data, instructions, or information. (228)

a. memory cache

b. registers

c. firmware

d. transistors

6. A(n) _____ is an external device that provides connections

to peripherals through ports built into the device. (236)

a. expansion bus

b. port replicator

c. docking station

d. synthesizer

7. A(n) _____, which is an external device that attaches to a

mobile computer or device, contains a power connection

and provides connections to peripherals; it usually also

includes slots for memory cards, optical disc drives, and

other devices. (236)

a. docking station

b. port replicator

c. peripheral

d. expansion bus

8. A(n) _____ is part of the motherboard and connects the

processor to main memory. (237)

a. expansion bus

b. system clock

c. memory module

d. front side bus


Matching Match the terms with their definitions.

__H__             1. motherboard (212)

__A__             2. processor (213)

__F__ 3. vPro technology (217)

__B__             4. heat sink (219)

__D__             5. memory (223)

__E__ 6. Windows ReadyBoost


__G__             7. flash memory (228)

__C__             8. access time (229)

__I__   9. USB hub (234)

__J__ 10. backside bus (237)


a. interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate a computer

b. small ceramic or metal component with fins on its surface that absorbs and

disperses heat produced by electrical components such as a processor

c. amount of time it takes the processor to read data, instructions, and

information from memory

d. electronic components that store instructions, data, and results of

processed data

e. can allocate available space on removable flash memory devices as

additional cache

f. provides the capability to track computer hardware and software, diagnose

and resolve computer problems, and secure computers from outside threats

g. nonvolatile memory that can be erased electronically and rewritten

h. main circuit board of the system unit

i. device that plugs in a USB port on the system unit and contains multiple

USB ports in which you plug cables from USB devices

j. connects the processor to cache


Short Answer Write a brief answer to each of the following questions.


1. What are two types of designs of Tablet PCs? slate Tablet PC & convertible

Tablet PC

What are the differences in the designs of the two types of Tablet PCs?  The location of System


2. What is the motherboard? main circuit board of the system unit

What is a computer chip? a small piece of semiconducting material, usually silicon, on which integrated circuits are etched


3. What are the four basic operations in a machine cycle? fetch, decode, execute, store

What are some functions of registers? storing the location from where an instruction was fetched, storing an instruction while the control unit decodes it, storing data while the ALU computes it, and storing the results of a calculation.


4. What types of devices might be Bluetooth enabled? Many computers,

peripherals, smart phones, PDAs, cars, and

other consumer electronics

Describe three ways in which a computer can become Bluetooth enabled. Bluetooth port, Bluetooth PC Cards and ExpressCard Modules

5. What is compressed air used for with regards to caring for your computer? blow away dirt from any openings on the case, such as drives, slots, ports, and fan vents

How should you prepare for cleaning your computer?

can of compressed air — removes dust and lint from difficult-to-reach areas; removes sticky liquid spilled on keyboards

lint-free antistatic wipes and swabs

screen cleaning solution or 50/50 mix of rubbing alcohol and water (do not use ammonia-based solutions)

small computer vacuum (or small attachments on your house vacuum)

antistatic wristband — to avoid damaging internal components with static electricity

small screwdriver (may be required to open the case or remove adapter cards)






Hallo, selamat datang….

This blog is for my work to Mr. Tri Djoko Wahjono.

This blog is for Materi Pengantar Teknologi dan Informasi